Harumi ARAI received a doctoral degree in health and welfare science from the graduate school of Takasaki University of Health and Welfare. She is a professor in psychiatric nursing and has been conducting field research for over 10 years on palliative care provided and needed for long-stay schizophrenic patients with cancer at psychiatric hospitals.
Western countries have been actively promoting community-based healthcare and welfare for mentally-disabled people. For example, Franco Basaglia (1924-1980), the father of Italian mental healthcare, established a treatment support system for mentally-disabled people, realized hospitalization in open wards, and started home-visit service using cars in 1977, based on the concept of human-rights protection, which triggered the mental healthcare reform in 1978 leading to the provision of new wards (with 15 beds or fewer) for psychiatric inpatients and cooperation with community service, which increased the number of beds per 1,000 people to 0.1. At the end of 1998, Italy declared a complete closure of mental hospitals. The psychiatric healthcare system in Western countries allows people with mental disorders to use community service and shorten hospital stays, thereby supporting them to return to community life. More and more psychiatric wards have been provided at general hospitals. In the United States, Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Iceland, Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, etc., beds in psychiatric wards account for 40% or higher of the total number of beds. In countries with a large number of beds for psychiatric patients, there are many nursing homes in communities where elderly patients are living after hospitalization. Although it is not realistic to abolish psychiatric hospitals in Japan, there are still many things to be learned from Western countries, such as the awareness of protection of human rights of mentally-disabled patients and cooperation between mental healthcare providers and communities.
Prof. Carmen Chan has rich experience in nursing programme curriculum development and management. She is the Vice Director (Education) and Chairperson of the Curriculum Committee of the Nethersole School of Nursing of the Chinese University of Hong Kong. She is also the undergraduate division head to oversee two undergraduate programs in the School. She has adopted and tested many innovative teaching approaches such as Problem-based learning, e-learning and flipped classroom. Recently she received the University Education Award to recognize her significant contribution in nursing education.
An interactive and active learning environment has a strong impact on developing students’ generic capabilities. Metacognition awareness is also known to be related to generic capability development. Active learning strategies in this project include flipped learning (the emphasis on pre-reading) and enhanced lectures (the breaking-down of a long lecture into several mini-lectures and the supplementation by interactive learning activities). Aims: The proposed project aims at providing support to nursing teachers to implement active learning. Methods: Phase I (2016-17) will be a preparation and training phase featuring a seminar and training workshop (in Feb 2017) to promote active learning and provide support to nursing faculties, and a production of enhanced teaching resource. Phase II (2017-18) will be the implementation and evaluation of active learning in the classroom teaching of an undergraduate nursing programme Year 5 curriculum. Phase III (Dec 2018) will be a seminar to disseminate the process and outcome of the promotion of active learning. Evaluation: The effectiveness of the project will be evaluated in a controlled study and by a Student Engagement Questionnaire, Metacognitive Awareness Inventory, and Approaches to Teaching Inventory. Students in year 1 to 3 have already experienced a small scale pilot implementation of flipped classroom in some selected courses. This project adopts a two group controlled design, in which the outcome measure of Year 4 students of 2016/17 (without flipped learning as control) will be compared with next cohort of students who will be provided with active learning (intervention) for four years when they advance to year 4 in 2017/18. Baseline findings of the control group and process evaluation will be presented in conference. Conclusions Active learning is a promising teaching approach to nurture holistic development for nursing students in terms of generic capabilities and metacognitive awareness.